NASA Renames Solar Probe Plus in Honour of Eugene Parker

NASA Renames Solar Probe Plus in Honour of Eugene Parker

NASA announced Wednesday that it has renamed the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft – the first mankind mission to a star, to be launched in 2018 – as Parker’s solar probe in honor of astrophysicist Eugene Parker.

“This is the first time NASA has named a spacecraft a living individual,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate director of NASA’s scientific mission leadership in Washington.

The announcement was made during a ceremony at the University of Chicago where Parker is Professor Emeritus of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Distinguished Service S. Chandrasekhar depart.

In 1958, Parker, then a young professor at the Enrico Fermi Institute of the University, published an article in the Astrophysical Journal entitled “Dynamics of interplanetary gas and magnetic fields.”

Parker believed that there was a material of high speed and a magnetism that constantly escaped from the Sun and that affected the planets and the space in our solar system.

This phenomenon, now known as the solar wind, has been shown repeatedly by direct observation.

Parker’s work is the basis of much of our understanding of how stars interact with the orbiting worlds.

“Solar probe is a region of space that has never been explored before,” he said.
“It’s very exciting that we’re finally going to look at it.” “We would like to have more detailed measures of what’s happening in the solar wind, I’m sure there will be surprises,” Parker added.

In the 1950s, Parker proposed a number of concepts about how stars, including our Sun, emit energy.

He called this cascade of solar wind energy, and described a whole complex system of plasma, magnetic fields and energetic particles that make up this phenomenon.

Parker also theorized an explanation of the superheated solar atmosphere, the crown, which, contrary to what was expected from the laws of physics, was warmer than the surface of the Sun itself.

Many NASA missions have continued to focus on this complex space environment defined by our field of research stars known as Heliophysics.

“Parker’s Solar Probe answering the questions of solar physics baffles us for more than six decades,” said Parker Laboratory of Applied Physics at Sonda Solar University’s scientific project Nicola Fox Johns Hopkins.

“It is a spacecraft responsible for the advances that will solve many of the great mysteries about our star, including why the solar crown is much hotter than its surface,” he said.

Parker Solar Probe is on its way to launch during a 20-day window beginning July 31, 2018, NASA said.

What can NASA do to close gap between Uhuru and Raila?

What can NASA do to close gap between Uhuru and Raila?

What can NASA do to close gap between Uhuru and Raila?

A number of commentators (and political actors) have repeatedly raised doubts about some contradictory results of the survey.

One in particular is the contrast between the proportion of Kenyans who believe the country is “going in the wrong direction” but expressed their intention to vote for the Jubilee government on duty (at least by the president and vice president) in the next choice.

Although much of their dismay is clearly motivated by partisan politics, this contrast must be taken into account. Although more research is needed to explore correctly, it can be suggested that the “direction” perceived by a country involves much more than approving the performance of individual leaders or their policies for more generally.

To take an example, this recent Ipsos poll found that more than two-thirds of all Kenyans believe the current leadership of the country is “false,” though with much of NASA’s supporters of the Jubilee, this (negative) 91% vs. 52%). However, between the two categories of respondents, the proportion of those who cited “cost of living” for “the main reason” of this view was the same (68%).

But how much is the cost of living can be placed directly in the door of any national government? World market prices (in particular for oil products), climatic conditions, conditions in neighboring countries (especially those in which trade depends heavily), and so on are also factors.
“Management” perceived by Kenya should take into account that most of Kenyatta (Kikuyu) and Ruto (kalenjin) and decided that they would be in better condition than Kenia with their leadership. Ethnic communities? Because, in fact, a vote (even verbal expressed in an interview-survey) is a choice between two (or more) specific options, not just an opinion.

In other words, while we may assume that many ethnic-country voters of the present Jubilee leadership are less satisfied with their present condition, it might be more realistic to imagine that they would rather not vote than to help elect someone an “alternative” ethnic community, in particular With someone they see, incorrectly or otherwise, as it can cause even more damage to their properties and their poor.

NASA Is Making Fake Clouds GlowNASA Is Making Fake Clouds Glow

NASA Is Making Fake Clouds Glow

NASA Is Making Fake Clouds Glow

If you look at the sky on Wednesday morning, you can see unusual colors. But do not worry, it’s not an alien invasion or a hallucination, just a NASA test.
The Wallops Flight Facility plans to launch a two-stage Malemute Terrier-enhanced n
“The sky in the morning off the south coast of the Atlantic will be lit with luminescent clouds, while NASA is testing a new system that is compatible with the scientific studies of the ionosphere and sunrise with a launch of a rocket sound, NASA said in a news release.
The launch of the full rocket cans – which will deploy its 10 cans, each the size of a soft drink, about four to five minutes after the launch of the East Coast of Virginia – will give scientists the opportunity to see ” By the interaction of barium, strontium and copper oxide, “96-124,000 high.

“It creates lightning bolts, which may be green or red could be a bit,” said Franklin Institute’s Derrick Pitts youth head to NBC10. “What this allows observers to do is to follow the movement of the different layers of the atmosphere.”
“They are interested in learning more about the dynamics of the atmosphere at that level,” said Pitts. “This will allow scientists to gather much more information about a larger area.”
The Lebanese Ministry calls for a ban on the film “Wonder Woman”
“(Scientists) want to make sure it’s a contrasting color that normally will not be,” he said.
“If you’re looking for, you look up and you’ll see strange clouds,” said Pitts. “It will immediately identify as normal.”
Home prices in the United States up to 2 times faster than wages
In the past, when people saw the clouds, they called the local police departments, NASA and others at sites in the sky, said Pitts.
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NASA and Pitts both said that artificial clouds pose no danger to anyone on the floor below.
The observation of artificial clouds goes back decades.
“This is not new, NASA has a lot, a lot, a lot of time,” Pitts said, adding that the Internet age has increased access to programs like this.
However, the delivery method of the primary payload of 670 rocket pots may be fairly new.
“The development of multiple vessel or airway ejection system will allow scientists to collect information on a much larger area than previously allowed when deploying only steam from the main payload,” NASA said.
While light winds are not necessary for launch, NASA could delay the rocket while the lunch window extends through June 6
Steam tracers may be visible in Philadelphia, but due to slight interference, less populated areas near the coast could allow better viewing.
“I hope you can see something if it’s a clear night,” said Pitts. “If you’re in a place where the sky is a lot darker, for example if you’re in South Jersey … I’m pretty sure I see it,” Pitts said. He added that the area around Vineland might be the best to see.

Nasa's daring mission to 'touch the sun' explained

Nasa’s daring mission to ‘touch the sun’ explained

Nasa’s daring mission to ‘touch the sun’ explained

NASA is expected to announce Wednesday that it intends to embark on a daring mission to “touch the sun.”

The organization will launch a probe that will be submerged in the surface of the star and will be the first mission to approach the sun.

NASA hopes to use the data the probe will collect to help astronomers predict solar storms and explain some of the deeper mysteries surrounding our source of light and heat.

According to a NASA statement, the spacecraft will be launched in the summer of 2018 and will orbit less than 4 million km from the “surface” of the Sun, where the probe “will face the heat and radiation differentiates any spacecraft Space in history. ”
Although 4 million miles seem far away from our small standards here on Earth, being close to it is likely to be a risk to the sun’s spacecraft.

For example, in orbit around the sun at a distance of 28 to 43 million miles from the surface and Mercury’s atmosphere have been completely changed by the constant stream of radiation and sun particles.

The spacecraft is able to cope with temperatures up to 1400 ° C.

Previous missions

The nearest spacecraft was before Helios 2 is located less than 27 million kilometers from the sun in 1976.

Is likely to help future generations of humans who can live a day beyond the Earth’s atmosphere information obtained from the probe.

Our world has become increasingly dependent on a network technology – in orbit and on the surface of our planet – that is vulnerable to a threat we barely refer to.

These people need to know to protect against the wind from charged particles and radiation.

“[Solar Probe Plus] explore the outer atmosphere of the sun and make critical observations that answer questions about decennial physics of how stars work,” said NASA.

“The resulting data will improve predictions of major space events that have an impact on life on Earth, as well as satellites and astronauts in space.”

NASA Is Finally Sending a Mission to Touch the Sun

NASA Is Finally Sending a Mission to Touch the Sun

NASA Is Finally Sending a Mission to Touch the Sun

NASA has visited very impressive places in the last 60 years, so it is surprising that the space agency has not yet found its way into the sun. The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto in the summer of 2015, is now 3.5 billion miles (5.6 billion km); Voyager 1, launched in 1977, has left the solar system in its entirety, across space at a distance of 11.7 billion miles (18.9 billion kilometers) from Earth.
The sun, for its part, is reach by cosmic standards, only 93 million miles (150 million km). And while it takes a lot of triangulation to get to Pluto, the sun is a little difficult to overlook. Just point and shoot.
The problem, of course, is that the sun is not surprising here, very hot. Temperatures in the corona – storm plasma that extends millions of miles into space and manifest during a solar eclipse – approach 553 000 ° C (1 million degrees F). There is a reason why the nearest spacecraft has reached the solar home was 27 million kilometers (43 million km), a brush comparative by the Helios 2 spacecraft in 1976.
Now, however, NASA plans to get closer – much closer. At a press conference on May 31, NASA formally announces details and launch date of Solar Probe Plus satellites, a ship leaves Earth next summer, in a window of 20 days from July 31 to August 19 Of 2018 (see the live streaming of the press conference on
There are many things that makes the mission extraordinary planned. Its approach close to the sun, an expected distance of 3.8 million miles (6.1 million km), leads to the crown and the first time a man-made machine has reached a star coach. This contact will not only be a unique thing. The spacecraft will enter a separate orbit from the sun in November 2018 and will make up to 24 narrow approaches until June 2025. Each orbit takes about 88 days to complete – similar to Mercury’s orbit of the sun – and its advanced speed, Boat will move at 450,000 km / h (724,000 kph), or fast enough to get from Philadelphia to Washington, DC, in a second.

Mattis says Trump “wide open” on Paris climate accord

Mattis says Trump “wide open” on Paris climate accord

Mattis says Trump “wide open” on Paris climate accord

President Trump is “very open” on whether the United States should remain in the Paris climate deal, Defense Secretary James Mattis said “Face the Nation” in an interview on Saturday.

The president promised during his campaign to withdraw the United States from the pact, an international agreement in nearly 200 countries to limit carbon emissions in order to fight against climate change.
Mr. Trump’s advisers are divided on the basis of the United States. The president, during his visit to the G7 summit in Europe this week, refused to join other national leaders to reaffirm his commitment to the Paris Agreement. He said on Twitter this week that he would make a final decision on the issue next week.

Face-Nation presenter John Dickerson on Saturday called on the Secretary of Defense to take the Paris agreement, in particular, on the role of national security in climate change.

“Obviously we had a discussion about our policy in this regard,” Mattis said. “I was about to participate in some of the discussions in Brussels, through climate change, and the president was open was curious why the others were in the position they were in – their counterparts from other countries – and I’m pretty sure That the president is very open on this issue as it takes the advantages and disadvantages of this agreement. ”

Mattis also said that the United States’ position on climate change is beyond its competence as Secretary of Defense.

“Frankly, this is not in my portfolio. Obviously, we are dealing with aspects of climate change in the Ministry of Defense, and for us, it is just one of many factors that we approach to what we call the physical environment.”

SpaceX Tests Huge Fuel Tank for Mars Colony Spaceship (Photo)

SpaceX Tests Huge Fuel Tank for Mars Colony Spaceship (Photo)

Falcon Heavy SpaceX rocket is a little closer to launch.

The company Elon Musk has released a video showing Tuesday 18 seconds a successful test firing of one of the engines at its Falcon rocket development facility in McGregor, Texas.

The video shows a heavy column of smoke and the flames coming out of the central base of the rocket with three heavy Falcon arms, which SpaceX calls the “most powerful in the world.”

In February, SpaceX announced that it plans to send two people to the moon aboard the next year Heavy Falcon.

The company also plans to use the heavy reusable Falcon, which is twice as powerful as any other existing rocket

SpaceX has successfully tested a prototype of the giant fuel tank as the company develops for its spacecraft intended for Mars, company representatives said.

SpaceX towed the same size of the carbon fiber tank – the largest such vessel has been produced, according to company founder and CEO Elon Musk – to the sea on a barge last week and then tested how the tank operated under pressure.

“Reach our two pressure targets, then complete cryo [genetics] test,” SpaceX wrote via Twitter, where the company publishes @SpaceX. In Marte.SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket is a peu plus près du décollage.

The Société d’Elon Musk published a video of 18 secondes mardi montrant a test of a tirne of a moteurs of Falcon Heavy dans are installation de développement de fusée à McGregor, au Texas.

The vidéo montre a panache de fumée lourde et des flammes versant du noyau central de la fusée à trois de Falcon Heavy, which SpaceX appelle le «plus puissant du monde».

En février, SpaceX to annonce avoir prévu d’envoyer deux personnes à la lune l’année prochaine à bord de Falcon Heavy.

The société prévoit également d’utiliser le Falcon Heavy réutilisable, qui est deux fois plus puissant that n’importe quelle autre fusée extant

SpaceX to be tested with a prototype of the giants that would be the carburant that the société développe pour vaisseau spatial prévu de Mars, ont d’entreprise des repêtages de l’entreprise.

SpaceX to remorse the réservoir of carbon fiber pleine grandeur – le plus grand tel navire jamais produit, selon le fondateur de l’entreprise et PDG Elon Musk – pour la mer sur une péniche la semaine dernière, puis a testé la façon dont le réservoir A fonctionné sous pression.

“Atteignez us deux cusso de pression. Ensuite, les tests complets de cryo [genic]”, écrit SpaceX via Twitter, où la société publie @SpaceX. To Mars.cohete Falcon Heavy SpaceX es un poco más cerca del lanzamiento.

La compañía Elon Musk ha publicado un video mostrando Martes 18 segundos un exitoso disparo de prueba de uno de los motores en su planta de desarrollo del cohete Falcon pesado en McGregor, Texas.

El video muestra una pesada columna de humo y las llamas que salían de la base central del cohete con tres brazos de Falcon pesado, que SpaceX llama el “más potente del mundo.”

En febrero, SpaceX anunció que planea enviar a dos personas a la luna a bordo del próximo año Falcon pesada.

La compañía también tiene previsto utilizar el Falcon reutilizable pesada, que es dos veces más potente que cualquier otro cohete existente

SpaceX ha probado con éxito un prototipo del tanque de combustible gigante ya que la empresa desarrolla por su nave espacial destinada Marte, dijeron representantes de la empresa.

SpaceX remolcado del mismo tamaño del tanque de fibra de carbono – el más grande de dicho buque se haya producido, de acuerdo con el fundador de la compañía y CEO Elon Musk – al mar en una barcaza la semana pasada y luego probó cómo el tanque operado bajo presión.

“Llegar a nuestros dos objetivos de presión. Luego, prueba completa crio [génica]”, escribió SpaceX a través de Twitter, donde la empresa publica @SpaceX. En Marte.SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket est un peu plus près du décollage.

La société d’Elon Musk a publié une vidéo de 18 secondes mardi montrant un test de tir réussi de l’un des moteurs de Falcon Heavy dans son installation de développement de fusée à McGregor, au Texas.

La vidéo montre un panache de fumée lourde et des flammes versant du noyau central de la fusée à trois bras de Falcon Heavy, que SpaceX appelle le «plus puissant du monde».

En février, SpaceX a annoncé avoir prévu d’envoyer deux personnes à la lune l’année prochaine à bord de Falcon Heavy.

La société prévoit également d’utiliser le Falcon Heavy réutilisable, qui est deux fois plus puissant que n’importe quelle autre fusée existante

SpaceX a testé avec succès un prototype du gigantesque réservoir de carburant que la société développe pour son vaisseau spatial prévu de Mars, ont indiqué des représentants de l’entreprise.

SpaceX a remorqué le réservoir de fibre de carbone pleine grandeur – le plus grand tel navire jamais produit, selon le fondateur de l’entreprise et PDG Elon Musk – pour la mer sur une péniche la semaine dernière, puis a testé la façon dont le réservoir a fonctionné sous pression.

“Atteignez nos deux cibles de


NASA wind tunnel tests rocket that will take man to Mars

NASA wind tunnel tests rocket that will take man to Mars

Tests conducted at the Langley Research Center wind subsonic wind tunnel from NASA in Virginia simulated wind conditions that could have the rocket.
This will help determine the safest distance between the rocket and launch tower, according to the space agency.
Recent tests include surface winds during a simulated takeoff by visualizing the smoke flow to show how the air flow behaves when it strikes the surface of the launch tower.
And the model rocket has been subjected to a wind speed of 140 miles per hour.
Wind tunnel testing is the latest in a series of ongoing tests before the first launch of the SLS rocket, during which the Orion spacecraft will be sent into remote retrograde orbit.

But earlier this year, the Trump administration asked the agency to evaluate the possibility of adding the mission of the first Orion astronauts.
If astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft encounter an emergency situation in the future launch a rescue interruption system will be activated in milliseconds to prevent the crew module from being compromised.
NASA has recently completed tests in the Altitude Control System Abort launching engine in anticipation of the vessel for a mission team to Mars.
The engine is equipped with eight valves that, in combination, can carry up to 7000 pounds of force direction. These essentials effectués au tunnel of souvenirs Subsonic Wind of the Langley Research Center of the NASA in Virginie ont simulé les conditions de vent that pourrait Avoir la fusée.
Cela les aidera à déterminer la distance sûre between la fusée et la tour de lancement, selon l’agence spatiale.
The most recent findings are the results of a simulated decollage, in use the visualization of the flux of smoke for the comment of the flux of air behave alors qu’il frappe the surface of the tour de lancement.
Et, la fusée modèle à été soumise à une ventesse de vent de 140 milles par heure.
The tests of the tunnel of blowers of a series of controls in cours avant le premier lancement de la fusée SLS, au cours de laquelle il enverra engin spatial Orion dans l’orbite rétrograde distante.

In addition, the Trump administration au début de cette année, demanded à l’agence d’évaluer à possibilité d’ajouter des astronautes à première mission Orion.
If you are astronauts at the border of the Vaisseau d’Orion, you should be aware of a situation of urgency in the future, a système d’interruption de sauvetage s’activera en millisecondes pour éviter that module de l’équipage ne soit en danger.
NASA has recently completed a series of tests to test the altitude of the Launch Abort System, in preparation for a mission to Mars.
Le moteur est équipé de huit soupapes qui, combinées, peuvent exert jusqu’à 7 000 livres de force de direction.Las pruebas realizadas en el Centro de Investigación Langley de viento subsónico túnel de viento de la NASA en Virginia simularon las condiciones de viento que podrían tener el cohete.
Esto ayudará a determinar la distancia más segura entre el cohete y la torre de lanzamiento, de acuerdo con la agencia espacial.
Pruebas recientes incluyen vientos de superficie durante un despegue simulado, mediante la visualización del flujo de humo para mostrar cómo se comporta el flujo de aire cuando golpea la superficie de la torre de lanzamiento.
Y el cohete modelo ha sido sometido a una velocidad del viento de 140 millas por hora.
Las pruebas de túnel de viento son el último de una serie de pruebas en curso antes del primer lanzamiento del cohete SLS, durante el cual se enviará la nave espacial Orion en la órbita retrógrada remoto.

Pero a principios de este año, la administración Trump pidió a la agencia para evaluar la posibilidad de añadir la misión de los primeros astronautas Orion.
Si los astronautas a bordo de la nave espacial Orion se encuentran con una situación de emergencia en el futuro poner en marcha un sistema de interrupción de rescate se activará en milisegundos para evitar que el módulo de la tripulación está en peligro.
La NASA ha completado recientemente pruebas en el Sistema de control de altitud Abortar lanzamiento del motor en previsión de la embarcación para un equipo de la misión a Marte.
El motor está equipado con ocho válvulas que, en combinación, pueden llevar hasta 7000 libras de dirección de la fuerza.Les essais effectués au tunnel de soufflerie Subsonic Wind de la Langley Research Center de la NASA en Virginie ont simulé les conditions de vent que pourrait avoir la fusée.
Cela les aidera à déterminer la distance la plus sûre entre la fusée et la tour de lancement, selon l’agence spatiale.
Les essais récents comprenaient des vents au sol lors d’un décollage simulé, en utilisant la visualisation du flux de fumée pour montrer comment le flux d’air se comporte alors qu’il frappe la surface de la tour de lancement.
Et, la fusée modèle a été soumise à une vitesse de vent de 140 milles par heure.
Les tests du tunnel de vent sont les derniers d’une série de contrôles en cours avant le premier lan

Ten Common Myths About beauty services at home in Mumbai

Ten Common Myths About beauty services at home in Mumbai

The beauty services at home have the great and winning philosophy in all over Mumbai and In Mumbai, there are many amazing beauty services industry, which is developed to make the lots of rumour’s and myth circulate about the best beauty services business, from that, the Glow up India is also the amazing industry in the Mumbai, which provides the best beauty treatment.


There are ten common myths about the beauty services at home in Mumbai Industry.

  • The beauty services are must provide the better opportunity to get the beauty services at home
  • It provides the best offer by giving the order at home with great beauty services. and no any chance to give the inconvenient facility.
  • The beauty services at the home are the best reason is that it saves your valuable time, in which you can do the other work and it will prove beneficial for you.
  • The beauty services play very importantly to improve the beauty of the person and it provides amazing opportunity at the home,
  • It becomes easier for that women, those not have the time to go outside, but you don’t need to take any worries for your beauty because the beauty services are providing for you.
  • Beauty services are providing the better prevention and treatment to the people, which is the amazing opportunity of the beauty services.
  • The beautician may apply that all product, which is perfect for people and suits to them.
  • It is the best way to get the great comfortable by choosing the best beauty services of the Mumbai industry and
  • Every people can take more advantage of the life by choosing the best beauty services at the home.
  • The best beauty services of the Mumbai industry is providing the best opportunity for the people.





Short Notes for Various Competitive Examinations

The Government of India has started a new health scheme called AMRIT (Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment) Retail Pharmacy. The cancer and heart medicine will be sold at discounted and subsidized rates. At this outlet the prices of 202 cancer and 186 cardio-vascular drugs will be reduced on an average by 60 to 90 per cent. The pilot AMRIT outlet will be managed by the government-owned HLL Lifecare Ltd (HLL), which will sell both drugs and implants at significant discount on market rates. These drugs and implants will be sold based upon authentic prescrip­tions from doctors to AIIMS patients and also patients availing treatment at other hospitals. Later, HLL Lifecare Ltd will establish and run the AMRIT chain of pharmacies across the country with an aim to reduce the cost of treatment for the patients.

Save the Children

Save the Children is an inter­national non-governmental organiza­tion that promotes children’s rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries. It was established in the United King­dom in 1919 in order to improve the lives of children through better education, health care, and economic opportunities, as well as providing emergency aid in natural disasters, war, and other conflicts. Save the Children promotes policy changes in order to gain more rights for young people especially by enforcing the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Alliance members coordinate emergency-relief efforts, helping to protect children from the effects of war and violence. Save the Children has general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.



Crypto-currency is a type of digital currency that uses crypto­graphy for security and anti­counterfeiting measures. Public and private keys are often used to transfer crypto-currency between individuals. As a counter-culture movement that is often connected to cypherpunks, crypto-currency is essentially a fiat currency. This means users must reach a consensus about crypto­currency’s value and use it as an exchange medium. However, because it is not tied to a particular country, its value is not controlled by a central bank. With bitcoin, the leading func­tioning example of crypto-currency, value is determined by market supply and demand, meaning that it behaves much like precious metals, like silver and gold.


Crowd-funding is a way of raising finance by asking a large number of people each for a small amount of money. Until recently, financing a business, project or venture involved asking a few people for large sums of money. Crowd­funding switches this idea around, using the internet to talk to thousands if not millions of potential funders. Typically, those seeking funds will set up a profile of their project on a website such as those run by our members. They can then use social media, alongside traditional net­works of friends, family and work acquaintances, to raise money.

Crowd-funding has the potential to increase entrepreneurship by expanding the pool of investors from whom funds can be raised beyond the traditional circle of owners, relatives and venture capitalists.

GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation)

The Indian Space Research Orga­nization (ISRO) and Airports Autho­
rity of India (AAI) have implemented the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation-GAGAN project as a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) for the Indian Airspace. The objective of GAGAN is to establish, deploy and certify satellite based augmentation system for safety-of- life civil aviation applications in India has been successfully completed. The system is inter-operable with other international SBAS systems like US-WAAS, European EGNOS, and Japanese MSAS etc. Gagan is inten­ded to provide accurate navigation services over the Bay of Bengal, South East Asia, Indian Ocean, Middle East, and African regions. GAGAN pro­vides the additional accuracy, avail­ability, and integrity necessary for all phases of flight, from enroute through approach for all qualified airports within the GAGAN service volume. GAGAN Payload is already operational through GSAT-8 and GSAT-10 satellites.


Bhuvan is an interactive versatile visualization system that allows users to navigate (or ‘fly’) the entire globe, scanning satellite imagery with over­lays of natural resource information, roads, geographic •> features, and numerous other location-specific data points. Users can add their own points of interest and share them with others, chart routes, plot areas, cal­culate distances, and overlay separate images onto the application. Bhuvan connects to the Internet, making online resources available in connec­tion with particular places. Users can show or hide available layers in any combination. Using the scale and the robust measurement and terrain analysis tools, this user could plot mileages, calculate elevation differ­ence and slope angle between two or more points in the 3D View, terrain elevation profile along a path, find places of interest along the way, and link to Web sites to contact those establishments.


Bio-diesel is made from vege­table oil or animal fat (triglycerides) reacted with methanol or ethanol and a catalyst (lye), yielding bio-diesel (fatty acid methyl or pthyl esters) and glycerin as a by-product.

It can be used in any diesel engine without modifications—diesel engines run better and last longer with bio-diesel. And it can easily be made from a common waste product: used cooking oil.Bio-diesel is a much cleaner fuel than conventional fossil- fuel petroleum diesel. Bio-diesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines.

Hydrogen Fuel

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen (if one considers water not as an emission) or used in a contained cell also capable of ‘reversing’ the reaction if needed. It often uses electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. It is also used in the propulsion of spacecraft and might potentially be mass-produced and commercialized for passenger vehicles and aircraft. Hydrogen can be used as the primary fuel in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. A hydrogen internal com­bustion engine is similar to that of a gasoline engine, where hydrogen combusts with oxygen in the air and produces expanding hot gases that directly move the physical parts of an engine.


Bitcoin is a form of digital currency, created and held electro­nically. No one controls it. Bitcoins aren’t printed, like dollars or euros— they’re produced by people, and increasingly businesses, running computers all around the world, using software that solves mathe­matical problems. It’s the first example of a growing category of money known as crypto-currency. A software developer called Satoshi Nakamoto proposed Bitcoin, which was an electronic payment system based on mathematical proof. The idea was to produce a currency independent of- any central authority,
transferable electronically, more or less instantly, with very low trans­action fees.

Silver Notice

The Interpol proposes to add to its armoury of measures for com­batting international crime the ’Silver Notice’ that1 would enable it to keep track of and confiscate movable and immovable assets of criminals globally. The Silver Notice will assist the 190 member countries of Interpol to locate, identify, monitor, seize and confiscate the assets of international criminals and terrorist organisations. The ‘Silver Notice’ is expected to promote international action and enhance the speed of the recovery of assets located in foreign jurisdiction. Presently the Interpol has seven major International notices—namely Red, Blue, Green, Black, Orange Notices, Stolen Property Notice and Modus Operandi (MO) Sheets. The Silver Notice, devoted to the tracing and recovery of assets owned by international criminals, would add a powerful instrument to the list of International notices of Interpol.

Uday Scheme

The Union Cabinet has approved a ‘reform’ package for loss-making electricity utilities. The scheme is named Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana (UDAY). The scheme is aimed at providing financial turnaround and revival of Power Distribution companies (DISCOMs). It also ensures a sustainable permanent solution to the problem. The scheme assures the rise of vibrant and efficient DISCOMs through a permanent resolution of past as well as potential future issues of the sector. The scheme allows DISCOMS in few selected states to convert their debt into state bonds. According to the scheme, states will take over 75% of DISCOM debt as on September 30, 2015 over two years- 50% of DISCOM debt will be taken over in 2015-16 and 25% in 2016-17.

Imprint India

President Pranab Mukherjee on November 5,         2015 launched

‘IMPRINT India’, a joint initiative of country’s top educational institutes, aimed at developing a roadmap for research to solve major engineering and technology challenges relevant
to India today. The objectives of this initiative are to identify areas of immediate relevance to society requir­ing innovation, direct scientific research into identified areas, ensure higher funding support for research into these areas and measure out­comes of the research effort with reference to impact on the standard of living in the rural and urban areas. The idea of launching IMPRINT India, which is now a joint project of IITs and IISc, originated during the conference of Chairmen, Board of Governors and Directors of Indian Institutes of Technology convened by the President in August 2014.

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  1. Which of the following state in India tops the list of fruit pro­ducer during the year 2014-15 ?
  • Maharashtra
  • West Bengal
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Gujarat
  1. As on Monetary Policy review, on February 2, 2016, repo rate stands at—
  • 7-75% (B) 7-25%

(C) 6-75%   (D) 6-25%

  1. ‘Stand-up India’ Scheme is associated with—
  • All small entrepreneurs
  • SC/ST entrepreneurs
  • Only women entrepreneurs
  • Only entrepreneurs in Rural Areas
  1. What is the maximum age of a girl child for opening account in ‘Sukanya Samriddhi Account’ ?
  • 5 years (B) 10 years

(C) 15 years (D) 18 years

  1. Reserve Bank of India has the right of printing currency notes upto the value of—
  • ? 1,000 (B) ? 5,000

(C) ? 10,000       (D) ? 20,000

1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (B) 4. (A) 5. (C
6. (D) 7. (A) 8. (B) 9. (A) 10. (C
11. (C) 12. (A) 13. (C) 14. (B) 15. (D
16. (A) 17. (D) 18. (B) 19. (A) 20. (B)
21. (A) 22. (C) 23. (B) 24. (B) 25. (C