Childhood obesity may lead to hip disease, suggests research

Childhood obesity may lead to hip disease, suggests research

Childhood obesity may lead to hip disease, suggests research

Obesity can put children at increased risk for hip disease, a condition that can cause life-threatening morbidity, new research suggests.

The female slippery epiphysis (fats) is the disease of the most common adolescent of the hip. The condition still requires surgery, can cause severe pain and, often leads to a hip replacement in adolescence or early adulthood.

“Ultimately, this study helps us understand one of the major diseases affecting the hip in childhood,” said Daniel Perry, one of the authors of the study at the Institute of Translational Medicine University of Liverpool, UK.

Children with this disorder have decreased their range of motion and are often unable to complete hip flexion or hip flexing completely inward.

Early recognition of this disorder is important because the deformation can be erased if the sliding remains untreated.

In order to identify children at high risk for this disease, researchers examined hospital and community problems to explore factors associated with this disorder and explanations of delayed diagnosis.

All files reviewed were people younger than 16 years of age with a diagnosis of this disorder and whose electronic medical history was carried out by one of 650 primary care centers in the UK between 1990 and 2013.

Using the size and weight of children recorded in the notes at a time before the disease was diagnosed, researchers were able to identify that obese children appear at the highest risk of the disease, according to the study published in Archives magazine Of Disease in Childhood.

“This is the best available evidence linking childhood obesity disease – which makes this condition as one of the few obesity-related diseases that can cause any illness throughout the life of childhood,” Perry said.

A 21-year-old British man gave birth to a girl? Can a man become pregnant?A 21-year-old British man gave birth to a girl? Can a man become pregnant?

A 21-year-old British man gave birth to a girl? Can a man become pregnant?

A 21-year-old British man gave birth to a girl? Can a man become pregnant?

As soon as I turned on my computer and started my online search to start the day, this brought me closer: A 21-year-old Brit has given birth to a daughter.

And my first instinct is that the man may be pregnant? Well, as far as I know (a science graduate), a man can not get pregnant.

He wanted to read the story of the 21-year-old English man, named Hayden Cross, became the first man in the UK to give birth to a baby.

So before you blindly believe this news, this is what you should know. And most importantly, can a man get pregnant and have a baby?

The truth is that Hayden Cross, 21, is transgender, which means that she was born as a woman (men trapped in a female body).

According to online reports, he lives as a man legally for three years and underwent a gender transition with hormone treatment from a woman to a man. However, she put her gender transition in the hope of getting pregnant.

She also kept her breasts and ovaries to carry a child. (Read: Bidhan Barua – The man who changed sex is now a married woman)

According to reports, he wanted to freeze his eggs at the NHS to have a baby in the future. However, medical authorities have refused to do so.

When I was financially able to get private procedures, I was looking for a sperm donor. And, fortunately, it was found through Facebook.

Hayden Cross designed with the help of a sperm donor and announced her pregnancy in January, which was the first case in the country.

According to The Sun, Cruz called her daughter an “angel” and was quoted as saying: “She is perfect in every way … she is so good.

I’m very fortunate. “The 21-year-old plans to resume their transition pause In the next step, they are going to withdraw their breast and ovaries (Read: Naina Singh – the 16-year-old girl who fought every obstacle to becoming a daughter)

This is also AIIMS: No doctors, no faculty, a crowded OPD shuts

This is also AIIMS: No doctors, no faculty, a crowded OPD shuts

This is also AIIMS: No doctors, no faculty, a crowded OPD shuts

At least 15 people with chronic illnesses suffer from mental disorders in India, according to a national survey conducted in 2016 by NIMHANS, establishing the country’s largest mental health.

However, for more than 19 months, the Indian Institute of Medical Sciences in India in Bhopal has not seen a single mental health patient.

In May 2015, AIIMS Bhopal stopped its OPD for these patients – one of the most active, attended 8,452 patients since 2013 and at least 15 patients per day in the last month. Reason: both the teachers are leaving, one of NIMHANS Bangalore

The Indian Express visited the AIIMS facility in Bhopal accessed official records to find that the poor state of the psychiatric department reflects a major problem in one of the six new functional institutions established for “correction of regional imbalances” in care health.

Like the pile of debris that is next to corridors without light behind the bright glass and the front of the AIIMS brick building in the heart of Bhopal.

AIIMS Bhopal began clinical services August 15, 2012 and the DPO services on January 26, 2013. Five years later, it has not yet obtained a full-time director, 80 p. 100 faculty positions are vacant and occupied only 73 327 seats intended for senior medical residents.

“Do you imagine that AIIMS closes its mental health services? In March, 2015 alone, the institute assisted 1059 patients.

However, during the next two months, the services were closed. In December 2016, a doctor was hired, but he was a resident doctor, not a right in itself, “said a senior consultant from AIIMS Bhopal.

And this, when the NIMHANS survey released this relationship of Madhya Pradesh a psychiatrist for 20 lakh people.

“For almost 15 months, patients had to be referred to other hospitals in the state or abroad.” When is the last time you heard of AIIMS patients? AIIMS is supposed to be the main reference center of the country, “says The consultant.

In March 2014, AIIMS Bhopal had 27 departments with 61 faculty members. And, according to official documents, the institute currently has 41 departments. But on the ground, the number of functional departments was reduced to 25, and the staff to 59.

It takes time for AIIMS Bhopal to become a brand, says Professor Nitin Madhusudan Nagarkar | Read here

For example, the Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, which deals with heart conditions, works on paper, but did not attend a single patient since June 2015.

In May 2015, his only option, an assistant professor of AIIMS New Delhi had left. And that, for a department of that area of ​​4 80 patients in the two years that worked.

“This is a basic requirement for any third-level hospital, but the service was closed. We hope it will be reopened in the coming months,” said a senior official at the institute’s administration.

It is a similar story in the oncology department, where the only teacher who joined the radiotherapy service in July 2013 left seven months later. The institute has not provided cancer-related services in the last three years.

In addition, AIIMS Bhopal is still subject to key services such as cardiology, nephrology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, urology and nuclear medicine.

The Department of Ophthalmology operates the fifth most active OPD of the institute, welcoming 19,886 patients in 2015-16. But from May 2016 until February 2017, he worked without a single member of the faculty and with only four resident physicians.

“We are one of the most active OPD here so it is even more important that there is at least one member of the higher faculty to handle complex cases.

At present, medical residents with less than three years of experience in handling the DPO. This is a case of trial and error, “said one resident physician.

Faceless Fish Among New And Weird Deep Sea Finds

Faceless Fish Among New And Weird Deep Sea Finds

Faceless Fish Among New And Weird Deep Sea Finds

SYDNEY: Strange and wonderful creatures with no face and other fish, many new species were transported deep water off Australia on a scientific voyage that explores some parts of the unexplored ocean before.

The month-long trip off the east coast of the country has been investigating life that hides in a dark, cold chasm that plunges four kilometers (2.5 miles) below the surface using nets, sonar and cameras Of deep water.

The scientific chief on board “The Researcher” Tim O’Hara Museums Victoria to AFP on Wednesday that the search area was “the most unexplored environment on earth.”

Dice and crunchy red rock, inflated shells, blind spiders and deep eels were collected since scientists began their journey – Launceston North Tasmania towards the Coral Sea – May 15.

An unusual faceless fish was also collected, which has been recorded once before by the pioneering scientific team at HMS Challenger in Papua New Guinea in 1873.

“He does not have eyes or nose and mouth visible is down,” O’Hara said of the ship.

At such great depths, it is so dark that creatures often do not have eyes or produce their own light through bioluminescence, he added.

Another finding was that carnivores use silicon spiral fused sponges, glass efficacy. They get small crustaceans that cling to their velcro spines, slowly digesting there.
This technique differs from most offshore sponges, which feed on bacteria and other unicellular organisms filtered from passing currents.

“We have 27 scientists on board who are leaders in their fields and tell me that about a third of what we find are new species,” O’Hara said, with several thousand copies found to date and from two weeks to Go travelers.

Life at such depths is one of overwhelming pressure, there is no light, little food and subzero temperatures, with animals calling the home’s only means of survival.

As food is scarce, they are usually small and move slowly. Many are frozen and spend their lives afloat, while others have fierce thorns and fangs and wait until their food arrives.

Working in such an environment was difficult, O’Hara admitted each fishing, taking up to seven hours to deploy and retrieve the equipment and its eight kilometers of cable from the bottom of the sea, as it is so far.

However, the data collected has helped improve understanding of Australia’s high seas habitats, their biodiversity and ecological processes that support them, O’Hara said.

“This will help their conservation and management and help protect the impacts of climate change, pollution and other human activities,” he said.

Space junk can destroy satellites, scientists say

Space junk can destroy satellites, scientists say

Space junk can destroy satellites, scientists say

“The problem of space debris is getting worse every year,” Ben Greene, head of the Australian Center for Space Research, told AFP.

Some 170 million pieces of debris or “space debris” are currently in orbit and only 22,000 Earth are being tracked, said Greene, who is organizing a conference between international space science in Canberra.

“We lost three or four satellites a year to the collision of space debris. We are very close, according to NASA estimates, of five to ten years to lose everything,” said M. Greene, adding that “an avalanche catastrophic collisions Could quickly destroy all orbiting satellites, it is now possible. ”

Greene suggests that such collisions can jeopardize the global economy, which shows the example of satellite dependence in Australia.

“The Australian economy is totally space dependent,” said M. Greene. “We are a large country with few people and the only way to treat it, whether with surveillance, security and search and rescue, comes from space.”

A major collision of space stress is “inevitable,” if the problem is not addressed properly, space junk expert Moriba Jah University of Texas, who joined the Canberra conference told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

“You drove on the highways here when you have a lot of fog or mist, and you have to go very slowly, and not really know what’s around you.” It’s the perfect analogy with space now, “said Jah.

NASA debris defined as “any artificial object in orbit around the Earth that no longer serves a useful function.” Such space freedom can move at speeds up to 27,000 km / h, “fast enough for a relatively small piece of orbital debris damage from a satellite or spacecraft,” according to NASA.

NASA says about 500,000 pieces of debris are being processed, while more than 20,000 fragments are “larger than a baseball orbiting Earth.”

It may even be a potential hazard to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as several spacecraft and shuttles with humans overseas.

Proper removal of the “waste” space has become a more important concern because the simple act of throwing objects away from the ships has created a lot of space debris.

In February of this year, NASA astronauts dropped a capsule for the ISS waste by a ton and a half in what looked like the largest example of sand in space.

The world's coral reefs are definitely in trouble. But as we and our colleagues argue in a study published in the journal Nature, we must not lose hope for coral reefs, despite hunting and omnipresent shade. Instead, we have to accept that coral reefs around the world quickly become a new ecosystem emerged, contrary to what humans have known before. Realistically, we can not wait to have, maintain, conserve or restore coral reefs as was the case. It is a message that was faced. But it also emphasizes what we need to do to ensure a realistic future for reefs and to maintain food security and other benefits they bring to society. The last three years have been the hottest recorded, and many coral reefs in the tropics have suffered one or more flushing bleaches during long heat waves underwater. A bleached coral may not die. But by 2016, two-thirds of the coral reefs north of the Great Barrier Reef have died in just six months due to unprecedented heat stress. This year, bleaching occurred again, this time mainly in the central part of the reef. In both years, the southern third reef escaped with little or no bleach, as it was cooler. Therefore, it is part of bleaching and varies depending on severity, depending in part on where the water is warmer each summer and regional differences in the rate of warming. Therefore, some areas, reefs, and even local sites on the reefs, can escape from damage even during a total heat loss. Moderate whitening events are also very selective, affecting more or less coral species and individual colonies, creating winners and losers. Coral species also differ in their ability to reproduce, which are dispersed in the form of larvae and rebound thereafter. This natural variability offers hope for the future and represents different sources of resistance. Surviving corals continue to produce one billion larvae each year, and their genetic makeup will change under intense natural selection. In response to fisheries, coastal development, pollution and the four whitening events in 1998, 2002, 2016 and 2017, the Great Barrier Reef is already a very disturbed ecosystem, and will change even more in the coming decades. Although the reefs are different in the future, they could still be fully functional in the coming centuries - able to withstand ecological processes and regenerate. But this will only be possible if we act quickly to curb climate change. The Paris Climate Agreement is the fundamental framework to avoid very dangerous levels of global warming. Price levels of 1.5 degrees Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius refer to increases in global mean temperature and sea, from pre-industrial times. For most of the shallow tropical oceans, where temperatures rise more slowly than the global average, this translates to 0.5 degrees Celsius later warming towards the end of this century - slightly less than the warming of coral reefs have Known since industrialization. If we can improve the management of the reefs to help manage this climate glove, the reefs must survive. The future of reefs will have a different combination of species, but it must still maintain its aesthetic values ​​and support tourism and fishing. However, this cautious optimism depends entirely on the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions from its current trajectory, which could see the annual bleaching of coral occur in most tropical places by 2050. There is no time Which you lose before you close this narrowing window.

Untitled

The world’s coral reefs are definitely in trouble. But as we and our colleagues argue in a study published in the journal Nature, we must not lose hope for coral reefs, despite hunting and omnipresent shade.

Instead, we have to accept that coral reefs around the world quickly become a new ecosystem emerged, contrary to what humans have known before. Realistically, we can not wait to have, maintain, conserve or restore coral reefs as was the case.

It is a message that was faced. But it also emphasizes what we need to do to ensure a realistic future for reefs and to maintain food security and other benefits they bring to society.

The last three years have been the hottest recorded, and many coral reefs in the tropics have suffered one or more flushing bleaches during long heat waves underwater.

A bleached coral may not die. But by 2016, two-thirds of the coral reefs north of the Great Barrier Reef have died in just six months due to unprecedented heat stress. This year, bleaching occurred again, this time mainly in the central part of the reef.

In both years, the southern third reef escaped with little or no bleach, as it was cooler. Therefore, it is part of bleaching and varies depending on severity, depending in part on where the water is warmer each summer and regional differences in the rate of warming. Therefore, some areas, reefs, and even local sites on the reefs, can escape from damage even during a total heat loss.

Moderate whitening events are also very selective, affecting more or less coral species and individual colonies, creating winners and losers. Coral species also differ in their ability to reproduce, which are dispersed in the form of larvae and rebound thereafter.

This natural variability offers hope for the future and represents different sources of resistance. Surviving corals continue to produce one billion larvae each year, and their genetic makeup will change under intense natural selection.

In response to fisheries, coastal development, pollution and the four whitening events in 1998, 2002, 2016 and 2017, the Great Barrier Reef is already a very disturbed ecosystem, and will change even more in the coming decades. Although the reefs are different in the future, they could still be fully functional in the coming centuries – able to withstand ecological processes and regenerate. But this will only be possible if we act quickly to curb climate change.

The Paris Climate Agreement is the fundamental framework to avoid very dangerous levels of global warming. Price levels of 1.5 degrees Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius refer to increases in global mean temperature and sea, from pre-industrial times. For most of the shallow tropical oceans, where temperatures rise more slowly than the global average, this translates to 0.5 degrees Celsius later warming towards the end of this century – slightly less than the warming of coral reefs have Known since industrialization.

If we can improve the management of the reefs to help manage this climate glove, the reefs must survive. The future of reefs will have a different combination of species, but it must still maintain its aesthetic values and support tourism and fishing. However, this cautious optimism depends entirely on the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions from its current trajectory, which could see the annual bleaching of coral occur in most tropical places by 2050. There is no time Which you lose before you close this narrowing window.

 

NASA Is Finally Sending a Mission to Touch the Sun

NASA Is Finally Sending a Mission to Touch the Sun

NASA Is Finally Sending a Mission to Touch the Sun

NASA has visited very impressive places in the last 60 years, so it is surprising that the space agency has not yet found its way into the sun. The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto in the summer of 2015, is now 3.5 billion miles (5.6 billion km); Voyager 1, launched in 1977, has left the solar system in its entirety, across space at a distance of 11.7 billion miles (18.9 billion kilometers) from Earth.
The sun, for its part, is reach by cosmic standards, only 93 million miles (150 million km). And while it takes a lot of triangulation to get to Pluto, the sun is a little difficult to overlook. Just point and shoot.
The problem, of course, is that the sun is not surprising here, very hot. Temperatures in the corona – storm plasma that extends millions of miles into space and manifest during a solar eclipse – approach 553 000 ° C (1 million degrees F). There is a reason why the nearest spacecraft has reached the solar home was 27 million kilometers (43 million km), a brush comparative by the Helios 2 spacecraft in 1976.
Now, however, NASA plans to get closer – much closer. At a press conference on May 31, NASA formally announces details and launch date of Solar Probe Plus satellites, a ship leaves Earth next summer, in a window of 20 days from July 31 to August 19 Of 2018 (see the live streaming of the press conference on Time.com).
There are many things that makes the mission extraordinary planned. Its approach close to the sun, an expected distance of 3.8 million miles (6.1 million km), leads to the crown and the first time a man-made machine has reached a star coach. This contact will not only be a unique thing. The spacecraft will enter a separate orbit from the sun in November 2018 and will make up to 24 narrow approaches until June 2025. Each orbit takes about 88 days to complete – similar to Mercury’s orbit of the sun – and its advanced speed, Boat will move at 450,000 km / h (724,000 kph), or fast enough to get from Philadelphia to Washington, DC, in a second.

Short Notes for Various Competitive Examinations

The Government of India has started a new health scheme called AMRIT (Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment) Retail Pharmacy. The cancer and heart medicine will be sold at discounted and subsidized rates. At this outlet the prices of 202 cancer and 186 cardio-vascular drugs will be reduced on an average by 60 to 90 per cent. The pilot AMRIT outlet will be managed by the government-owned HLL Lifecare Ltd (HLL), which will sell both drugs and implants at significant discount on market rates. These drugs and implants will be sold based upon authentic prescrip­tions from doctors to AIIMS patients and also patients availing treatment at other hospitals. Later, HLL Lifecare Ltd will establish and run the AMRIT chain of pharmacies across the country with an aim to reduce the cost of treatment for the patients.

Save the Children

Save the Children is an inter­national non-governmental organiza­tion that promotes children’s rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries. It was established in the United King­dom in 1919 in order to improve the lives of children through better education, health care, and economic opportunities, as well as providing emergency aid in natural disasters, war, and other conflicts. Save the Children promotes policy changes in order to gain more rights for young people especially by enforcing the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Alliance members coordinate emergency-relief efforts, helping to protect children from the effects of war and violence. Save the Children has general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

 

Crypto-currency

Crypto-currency is a type of digital currency that uses crypto­graphy for security and anti­counterfeiting measures. Public and private keys are often used to transfer crypto-currency between individuals. As a counter-culture movement that is often connected to cypherpunks, crypto-currency is essentially a fiat currency. This means users must reach a consensus about crypto­currency’s value and use it as an exchange medium. However, because it is not tied to a particular country, its value is not controlled by a central bank. With bitcoin, the leading func­tioning example of crypto-currency, value is determined by market supply and demand, meaning that it behaves much like precious metals, like silver and gold.

Crowd-funding

Crowd-funding is a way of raising finance by asking a large number of people each for a small amount of money. Until recently, financing a business, project or venture involved asking a few people for large sums of money. Crowd­funding switches this idea around, using the internet to talk to thousands if not millions of potential funders. Typically, those seeking funds will set up a profile of their project on a website such as those run by our members. They can then use social media, alongside traditional net­works of friends, family and work acquaintances, to raise money.

Crowd-funding has the potential to increase entrepreneurship by expanding the pool of investors from whom funds can be raised beyond the traditional circle of owners, relatives and venture capitalists.

GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation)

The Indian Space Research Orga­nization (ISRO) and Airports Autho­
rity of India (AAI) have implemented the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation-GAGAN project as a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) for the Indian Airspace. The objective of GAGAN is to establish, deploy and certify satellite based augmentation system for safety-of- life civil aviation applications in India has been successfully completed. The system is inter-operable with other international SBAS systems like US-WAAS, European EGNOS, and Japanese MSAS etc. Gagan is inten­ded to provide accurate navigation services over the Bay of Bengal, South East Asia, Indian Ocean, Middle East, and African regions. GAGAN pro­vides the additional accuracy, avail­ability, and integrity necessary for all phases of flight, from enroute through approach for all qualified airports within the GAGAN service volume. GAGAN Payload is already operational through GSAT-8 and GSAT-10 satellites.

Bhuvan

Bhuvan is an interactive versatile visualization system that allows users to navigate (or ‘fly’) the entire globe, scanning satellite imagery with over­lays of natural resource information, roads, geographic •> features, and numerous other location-specific data points. Users can add their own points of interest and share them with others, chart routes, plot areas, cal­culate distances, and overlay separate images onto the application. Bhuvan connects to the Internet, making online resources available in connec­tion with particular places. Users can show or hide available layers in any combination. Using the scale and the robust measurement and terrain analysis tools, this user could plot mileages, calculate elevation differ­ence and slope angle between two or more points in the 3D View, terrain elevation profile along a path, find places of interest along the way, and link to Web sites to contact those establishments.

Bio-diesel

Bio-diesel is made from vege­table oil or animal fat (triglycerides) reacted with methanol or ethanol and a catalyst (lye), yielding bio-diesel (fatty acid methyl or pthyl esters) and glycerin as a by-product.

It can be used in any diesel engine without modifications—diesel engines run better and last longer with bio-diesel. And it can easily be made from a common waste product: used cooking oil.Bio-diesel is a much cleaner fuel than conventional fossil- fuel petroleum diesel. Bio-diesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines.

Hydrogen Fuel

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen (if one considers water not as an emission) or used in a contained cell also capable of ‘reversing’ the reaction if needed. It often uses electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. It is also used in the propulsion of spacecraft and might potentially be mass-produced and commercialized for passenger vehicles and aircraft. Hydrogen can be used as the primary fuel in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. A hydrogen internal com­bustion engine is similar to that of a gasoline engine, where hydrogen combusts with oxygen in the air and produces expanding hot gases that directly move the physical parts of an engine.

Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a form of digital currency, created and held electro­nically. No one controls it. Bitcoins aren’t printed, like dollars or euros— they’re produced by people, and increasingly businesses, running computers all around the world, using software that solves mathe­matical problems. It’s the first example of a growing category of money known as crypto-currency. A software developer called Satoshi Nakamoto proposed Bitcoin, which was an electronic payment system based on mathematical proof. The idea was to produce a currency independent of- any central authority,
transferable electronically, more or less instantly, with very low trans­action fees.

Silver Notice

The Interpol proposes to add to its armoury of measures for com­batting international crime the ’Silver Notice’ that1 would enable it to keep track of and confiscate movable and immovable assets of criminals globally. The Silver Notice will assist the 190 member countries of Interpol to locate, identify, monitor, seize and confiscate the assets of international criminals and terrorist organisations. The ‘Silver Notice’ is expected to promote international action and enhance the speed of the recovery of assets located in foreign jurisdiction. Presently the Interpol has seven major International notices—namely Red, Blue, Green, Black, Orange Notices, Stolen Property Notice and Modus Operandi (MO) Sheets. The Silver Notice, devoted to the tracing and recovery of assets owned by international criminals, would add a powerful instrument to the list of International notices of Interpol.

Uday Scheme

The Union Cabinet has approved a ‘reform’ package for loss-making electricity utilities. The scheme is named Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana (UDAY). The scheme is aimed at providing financial turnaround and revival of Power Distribution companies (DISCOMs). It also ensures a sustainable permanent solution to the problem. The scheme assures the rise of vibrant and efficient DISCOMs through a permanent resolution of past as well as potential future issues of the sector. The scheme allows DISCOMS in few selected states to convert their debt into state bonds. According to the scheme, states will take over 75% of DISCOM debt as on September 30, 2015 over two years- 50% of DISCOM debt will be taken over in 2015-16 and 25% in 2016-17.

Imprint India

President Pranab Mukherjee on November 5,         2015 launched

‘IMPRINT India’, a joint initiative of country’s top educational institutes, aimed at developing a roadmap for research to solve major engineering and technology challenges relevant
to India today. The objectives of this initiative are to identify areas of immediate relevance to society requir­ing innovation, direct scientific research into identified areas, ensure higher funding support for research into these areas and measure out­comes of the research effort with reference to impact on the standard of living in the rural and urban areas. The idea of launching IMPRINT India, which is now a joint project of IITs and IISc, originated during the conference of Chairmen, Board of Governors and Directors of Indian Institutes of Technology convened by the President in August 2014.

Continued from Page 122

  1. Which of the following state in India tops the list of fruit pro­ducer during the year 2014-15 ?
  • Maharashtra
  • West Bengal
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Gujarat
  1. As on Monetary Policy review, on February 2, 2016, repo rate stands at—
  • 7-75% (B) 7-25%

(C) 6-75%   (D) 6-25%

  1. ‘Stand-up India’ Scheme is associated with—
  • All small entrepreneurs
  • SC/ST entrepreneurs
  • Only women entrepreneurs
  • Only entrepreneurs in Rural Areas
  1. What is the maximum age of a girl child for opening account in ‘Sukanya Samriddhi Account’ ?
  • 5 years (B) 10 years

(C) 15 years (D) 18 years

  1. Reserve Bank of India has the right of printing currency notes upto the value of—
  • ? 1,000 (B) ? 5,000

(C) ? 10,000       (D) ? 20,000

1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (B) 4. (A) 5. (C
6. (D) 7. (A) 8. (B) 9. (A) 10. (C
11. (C) 12. (A) 13. (C) 14. (B) 15. (D
16. (A) 17. (D) 18. (B) 19. (A) 20. (B)
21. (A) 22. (C) 23. (B) 24. (B) 25. (C

Structural Change

Capital expenditure (capex) in the economy will now be driven by investments in digital, broadband, telecom, power transmission and distribution space and not so much by heavy industrial projects like in the past. The structure of economy is changing. The composition of invest­ments will also change along with what is happening in the rest of the economy. After a decade the lands­cape is changing at a rapid rate for India Inc. The traditional model of subsidy funded consumption growth and crony capitalism driven capex growth in India are being ‘reset’. The RBI brings about multiple policy changes to radically increase com­petition in the Financial Services sector. Technology lowers the barriers to entry into sectors such as lending, consumer goods and auto. The three steps already taken are: increasing India’s financial savings, to “‘curb

PD/April/2016/93
subsidies and an attempt to attack black money and crony capitalism. These measures would lead to noti­ceable changes in the Indian eco­nomy.

The Kelkar Committee Report points out the need for genuinely independent sectoral regulators. Without such regulators taking arms- length decisions, the working of PPPs will always be excessively subject to political and bureaucratic pressure or to influence by powerful promoters. The Report also recognises that renegotiation in such projects, given their long-term horizons, may become a fact of life. However, the continued capacity deficit in administering PPPs means private interest will not be revived soon. Indian Railways is clearly pursuing off-budget fund-raising doggedly. After LIC’s ? 1-5 lakh crore, the World Bank is working on a $ 30 billion package. These will be a major boost for the railway to fund several big-ticket expansion projects, includ­ing the debottlenecking of highly congested sections of the network. Capital expenditure in 2016 is thus expected to pick up substantially.

Agriculture

What about agriculture ? It’s all- pervading gloom in agriculture. The farmers are under severe stress with profitability in farming falling alarm­ingly. What are the key issues in the farm sector ? We need to be aware weather is a known unknown. Agri­cultural performance has been poor since the boom of the 2003-08 phases. Agriculture will be a concern and going ahead a lot is expected from the government in terms of spending. There is an urgent need to rejuvenate agriculture and the rural economy. The focus should be on how to revive agriculture in the medium term. In the last two years, it has shown how vulnerable agriculture really is. Especially in the context of climate change, we can’t afford to neglect agriculture.

As per the first revised estimates by the Central Statistics Office (CSO), the share of Primary Sector including agriculture, livestock, forestry and fishery was 20-04 per cent of the Gross Value Added (GVA) during 2014-15 at 2011-12 prices. During Q1 FY2016, agriculture and allied sectors
grew 1.9 per cent year-on-year and contributed 14.2 per cent of GVA.

Make in India

The present Government is try­ing to push the idea of ‘Make in India’. This is a welcome move. In order to rejuvenate India’s stunted industrial progress, we need better transporta­tion, more reliable and good quality power, fewer taxes / inspections / controls / registrations and other bureaucratic nightmares, faster clearances and turnarounds at ports— the list is long. Any government which is serious about supporting Indian manufacturing will have to attend to all these issues before entrepreneurial animal spirits take over. At a minimum, businesses should not be discouraged from ‘Making in India’. Make-in-India is not going to be a medicine that can cure all our ills. Creating the enabling environment of better infrastructure and less bureaucracy is not going to happen overnight.

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)

The present regime needs to focus more on getting the MSMEs sector up. The Micro Units Develop­ment and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) credit guarantee fund is expected to guarantee over ? 1 lakh crore worth of loans to micro and small units in the first instance.

Financial Sector

Large sections of the economy, including the crucial banking sector, are in trouble. The RBI has said that the government-owned banks’ health has deteriorated. Public Sector Banks (PSBs) are waiting for the big changes to come through. The gross non­performing assets ratio was 5.1 per cent for the first half of 2015-16. That’s around ? 65,000 crore. It will deter­iorate further by the end of March 2016. Banks are loathe to fix this because of unbearable strains on their accounts. The question of non-per­forming assets (NPAs) will linger on in 2016. Commercial banks are stuck with bad loans—in several cases, they have to engage in a write-off—and the risks. Restructuring is a legitimate activity. Large corporate defaulters have taken cover under dysfunctional bankruptcy laws and procedures.